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2018下半年重庆教师资格考试英语学科专业知识:定语从句语法详解

2018-10-14 10:24:45| 中公教育

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中公教师网整理了定语从句语法详解,希望能够帮助考生备考教师资格英语学科考试,赢得高分。

一、定语

句子中修饰名词或代词的成分叫做定语。

定语可以由形容词,名词,不定式,分词,动名词或从句来充当。

eg: She is a beautiful girl. (形容词)

I met someone funny on my way to Beijing. (形容词)(修饰不定代词的定语后置)

He is an English teacher. (名词)

(名词作定语时一般用单数,例外的有sports, 如 a sports star)

I have a lot of work to do. (不定式)

The book written by a schoolboy is very popular now. (过去分词短语)

We can see the rising sun. (现在分词) = the sun is rising.

He is in the reading room. (动名词) = the room for reading

The boy who broke the window is Tom’s brother. (从句)

注意:1.形容词作定语一般放在所修饰的词前面;但当形容词修饰的是something, anything, everything, nothing, someone, everyone, everybody, somewhere等不定代词时,要放在这些词的后面。

present (在场的), absent (缺席的)作定语时需要后置。 students present / absent

2. 不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后。

3 分词作定语时,即可放在所修饰词前,也可放在所修饰词后

1)分词前置:单独的一个分词作定语,一般放在所修饰词前。

He is a retired worker.  他是位退休的工人

2)分词后置分词在以下情况,放在所修饰词的后面

i. 分词词组; There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里

ii. 个别分词如given, left;

This is the question given.   这是所给的问题

iii. 修饰不定代词 something等

There is nothing interesting.  没有有趣的东西

过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。

Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.

= Most of the people who were invited to the party were from South Africa

二、定语从句(Attributive Clauses)

在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。

关系副词有:when, where, why等。

I like the books that are written by Mr. Green.

先行词 关系词

A. 关系词:

关系词通常有三个作用:引导定语从句,指代先行词,在定语从句中充当句子成分。

定语从句语法详解

Anyone who breaks the law will surely be punished.

1. 先行词指人时,定语从句的引导词:

(1)指人时,who和that都可以使用.

(2)who和whom都可以作定语从句宾语,但从句中的介词提前时,不能用who.

He is the man who / whom I talked to you about.

= He is the man about whom I talked to you.

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